For anyone that works in Italy, you will of heard or should know about the Medico Fiscali. Who are they and what do they do? For anyone that is off work due to sickness, you will first need to go to your local doctor (Medico Curante) to obtain a medical certificate whilst off work. This thread explains the process. For every day that you are off work due to sickness you are obliged to stay at home during certain hours of the day, in which, a medical fiscali (also known as medico di INPS) may make visit. This includes weekends and public holiday. The medico fiscali will be either sent by INPS or your employer. The Medical Fiscali is sent to control the current status of your illness. They have the power to: - Extend the sickness leave. - Leave the sickness as stated on original doctors certificate. - Cut short your sickness leave and declare you fit to work the next day. What hours do I need to stay at home? The hours that you need to be at home depends on who your employer is. There are two different hours, one for private employers and another for public sector employers. Private: From 10:00 - 1200 and from 17:00 - 1900. Public Sector: From 09:00 - 13:00 and from 15:00 - 18:00. What happens if I am not at home during these hours? Firstly, you can be absent from home during these hours only under certain circumstances . For example, you have an appointment at the hospital to carry out further tests to your illness. In this case, you must always ask the hospital to leave you with a certificate that states you were at the hospital at such times on such date for a medical visit. In short, if you are unable to be present at home during these hours, your absence has to always be justified with a written certificate and the certificate has to be in connection with your current illness. If you are unable to justify your absence, then on the first visit you will lose 50% pay for the duration of the sickness leave. If you are still not present on a second visit, you will lose 100% sickness pay for the duration of the sickness leave. Excuses below are not a valid reason for not being at home. I did not hear the doorbell. I popped to the shops. I went to the dentist. (When you are off sick for a broken leg) I was in the shower. I am sure there are some people that take off false sick days just to have the day off work. In Italy, this is the way that they deal with it by making random visits at home. If you are sick, then you have nothing to worry about and don't feel that something is wrong if you do get a visit from the medical fiscali.